Crosstransmission of human and animal Onchocerca parasites

In Northern Cameroon, Simulium damnosum s.l. flies transmit at least three different Onchocerca parasites from man  (O. volvulus, savanna strain), cattle (O. ochengiO. dukei is transmitted by Simulium bovis in the same area) and warthog (O. ramachandrini).

Cross-transmission cycles of human and animal Onchocerca spp. by Simulium damnosum s.l. in North Cameroon (A. Renz)